• New Egypt Phys. Ed

    Weight Training

    Essentials of Productive Weight Training: Selecting Exercises, Safety & Spotting Procedures


    I. A. The Importance of Training on a Regular Basis

    1. Use it or lose it

    2. Increases in training intensity should be gradual

    3. Tri-weekly attendance is a minimum (decreases in training status occur after approximately 72 hours of no training)


    B. Attitude and Perseverance -- “Be Patient”

    1. You must believe that weight training will make dramatic changes in your health and physique.

    2. Make the commitment to train hard -- push yourself to your limit.

    3. It takes time for the brain to figure out which muscles to recruit for which movement in each exercise.

    4. Soreness subsides after the first few workouts at which time significant gains in muscle strength and tone will occur.

    5. Sound nutrition -- to see gains in muscular strength, endurance, & tone, your body needs nutrients to encourage the adaptation that your body is going through as a result of progressive overload.

    6. Adequate rest – incorporate a day of rest in-between to reduce injury and drop offs in performance.

    7. Obtain medical clearance, especially if you have had a history of injuries, joint problems, respiratory ailments, or a cardiovascular condition. Weight training may be an inappropriate activity to engage in!


    II. Selecting Exercises


    A. Factors That Affect How You Will Utilize Weight Training

    1. Determine your desired outcome (strength, flexibility, injury rehabilitation, athletics, weight control, cardiovascular endurance).

    2. Is there a particular body part that you want to emphasize?

    3. What training equipment is available?

    4. How much time do you have?

    5. Select the area that you intend to work on and perform every exercise available for that particular muscle group.

    6. Discard any exercises that you feel pain or discomfort in the joints. Tension should be felt in the target muscles, but not in the joints.

    7. Discard any exercises that do not create a reasonable degree of tension in the target muscles because they are less likely to produce the desired results.

    8. Eliminate exercises that you do not enjoy doing. There is no single exercise that is critical to your progress.

    9. Distinguish between exercises that incorporate full range movements and those that do not. Choose the exercises that move the joint through a greater range of degrees.

    10. In general, it is better to choose two (2) distinctly different exercises than to perform variations of essentially the same movement. Movements, which begin and end in approximately the same position, generally incorporate the same stabilizer muscles. As those muscles become fatigued, the training intensity must be reduced even though the target muscles may not be maximally stressed. By choosing two (2) different exercises that are dissimilar in form, one uses different stabilizer muscles and tends to reduce the cumulative effects of fatigue, thus increasing the potential productivity of the workout.


    III. Safety


    A. Using Equipment

    1. Know what each machine can do in terms of exercises and how they work: become familiar with seating positions, fulcrums, etc.

    2. List the names of 10 machines or exercises performed in the weight room and what exercises/body parts they are used for.


    Name of Machine

    Body Part Used






















    B. Before Using the Machines

    1. Check for frayed cables and belts

    2. Check for worn pulleys and chains

    3. Check for loose pads and uneven or rough movements

    4. Adjust seat and levers to accommodate your body size

    5. Make sure selector key (pin) is inserted all the way at your desired resistance


    C. Working With Free Weights

    1. Become familiar with barbells, dumbbells, locks, and collars

    2. Load bars evenly and learn the weight of various barbells

    3. Lock barbells and dumbbells

    4. Train in a space that is free from others; avoid bumping

    5. Be aware of extended bars

    6. Store equipment in the proper place; do not leave on the floor


    D. 4 Aspects of Correct Lifting Technique

    1. Having a firm grip

    2. Having a stable position from which to lift

    3. Keeping the object being lifted close to the body

    4. Using your legs and not your back to do the lifting


    E. Types of Grips

    1. Underhand

    2. Overhand

    3. Alternate


    F. Proper Breathing Technique

    1. Exhale at the working or exertion phase

    2. Inhale during the relaxation phase

    3. Avoid holding your breath

    4. Avoid breathing rapidly between breaths


    G. Quality of Exercise Execution

    1. For beginners, each movement (rep) should be performed at a moderate pace: not too slow or not too fast (approx. 2-3 seconds on the exertion (positive/exhale) phase and 3-5 seconds on the resting (negative/inhale) phase

    2. Try to have full extension and flexion of a joint -- “No Jerking”

    3. Remember, proper execution is more important than the number of reps


    IV. Spotting


    A. The Role and Responsibilities

    1. Move all loose plates, barbells, and dumbbells away from your area to avoid slipping or tripping on them

    2. Know the exercise you are spotting and what the proper positioning is and keys to success are

    3. Place your body in proper position with hands as close to the bar as possible without obstructing the movement of the bar

    4. Keep your knees flexed and your back flat

    5. Communicate with your partner (be aware of the number of reps completed and the number of reps intended)

    6. Know when and how to guide the bar in the desired path

    7. Know when and how much lifting assistance is needed to complete the exercise


    Sample Weight Training Workout Program


    Day 1-

    Back- 3 exercises- 4 sets

    Triceps – 2 exercises- 3 sets


    Day 2-

    Chest- 2 exercises- 3 sets

    Biceps- 2 exercises- 3 sets

    Forearms- 2 exercises- 3 sets


    Day 3-

    Legs- 4 exercises- 4 sets (1 set calves)

    Shoulders- 3 exercises- 3 sets

    All exercises are done 8-12 reps or to FATIGUE!!!!


    Exercise Choices- Please do not do the same all the time


    Back Triceps Chest Forearms

    Wide Grip Pull Push Downs Incline DB Press Wrist Curls

    Med Grip Pull DB Overhead Incline Fly’s Wrist extens.

    Close Grip Pull Bar Overhead Incline Bench Wind-Ups

    Low Pulley Row Close Grip Press Flat DB Press

    DB Bent Over Row Kick Backs Flat Fly’s

    Prone Fly’s Bench Ups Flat Bench


    Biceps Legs Shoulders

    Preacher Curl Squats W Press

    Hammer Curl Lunges Upright Row

    DB Curl Dead Lift Front Raises (palms up)

    1 Arm Cable Curl Leg Press Shrugs

    Straight Bar Curl Extensions Seated Press

    Leg Curls

    Wall Sits

    Calve Raises


    Cardiovascular Fitness


    History: Humans have always seemed to realize the benefits of being physically fit. The ancient Greeks were particularly aware of this and placed a heavy emphasis on fitness. Other cultures place less emphasis on fitness. In the 1950’s in the United States, President Eisenhower created the President’s Council on Youth Fitness, which is now called The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Tests were developed to measure fitness. The Council defines fitness as an ability to efficiently carry out day-to-day tasks and have enough energy left for leisure pursuits. Most experts believe evaluation of fitness includes aerobic endurance, muscle strength, body composition, and muscular endurance.


    Measuring Fitness Level: Fitness levels should be measure before starting an exercise program to establish proper levels of training and prevent injuries. Cardio respiratory levels can be measured using the 12-minute walk-run test. In this test, the person walks/runs as fast as he or she can for twelve minutes and at the end of that time the distance covered is measured. The test should be repeated once every few months to determine fitness progress.

    A person’s body composition or percentage of body fat can be determined by using skin fold calipers, pieces of equipment that estimate body fat. The measurement is taken on various areas of the body such as above the hip, triceps biceps, abdominal areas and thighs. Once the measurement is taken, there are calculations that can be made to determine estimated body fat composition.

    Muscle strength and endurance can be measured using timed sit-ups and pull-ups. Lower body flexibility is measured using the sit and reach test which measures how far the hands can extend down the legs in a reaching motion from a sitting position.

    Strategies for Improving Cardio Fitness: Exercises and activities that help to develop aerobic endurance are effective in improving cardio fitness. Examples of such activities are cycling, brisk walking, running, jogging, and swimming. Most experts agree that such exercise should be performed at least three times a week and for at least a half hour. The heart rate should work at 60% of the heart rate reserve. The following formula can be used to determine training heart rate that is desirable: 

    Maximum heart rate = 220 – person’s age

    Training heart rate = (Maximum heart rate – resting heart rate) X .60 resting heart rate

    Training programs should start slowly and build gradually to prevent injury, increase motivation, and avoid strain on the body. People with medical concerns or who are above age 35 should have a complete physical prior to starting a training program. The exercise program should include a warm up and cool down portion and exercise should be suspended in the event of an injury to allow time for the body to heal. 

    Lower body fat composition requires a combination of exercise to burn calories and lowering calorie intake. It is recommended that such a program also be down gradually to be sure the body gets proper nutrients and that the program be successful. 

    Muscle endurance and flexibility can be improved by performing stretching exercises and such exercises as sit ups, push ups, sitting stretches, and supine hip flexor stretches.



    Aerobic Exercise: Exercise designed to use the oxygen system of the body. 

    Anaerobic: Energy processes that occur in the absence of oxygen.

    Basal Metabolism Rate: Energy process needed to maintain life at a resting position.

    Cardiac Output: The amount of blood pumped by the heart.

    Coronary Arteries: Arteries that supply blood to the heart. 

    Exercise Frequency: How often you exercise 

    Exercise Intensity: The speed or resistance of the exercise – how hard you exercise

    Flexibility: Range of motion of the body joints. 

    Interval Training: An exercise program that utilizes repetition of exercises with periods of rest in-between. 

    Lean Body Mass: Muscle, bone, and other nonfat tissue that make-up the body. 

    Metabolic Rate: Total energy expended to maintain the chemical and physical activity of the body.

    Warm Down or Cool Down: Tapering off period following an exercise routine.


    NUTRITION : Click and Review

    Nutrition Powerpoint